a) Investigation on Wind Resources
From the latter stage of the 1970s, several all-around investigations were conducted on the wind resources in China undertaken by meteorology science institute. In 1981, China at the first time published the first national wind resources distribution and zoning map, which provided valuable ground to develop and utilize wind energy in China. In 1987, another further detailed investigation on wind resources was conducted in regions of costal area in southeast China and northern China where are promising for developing the wind energy in China, enhancing density of place selection and perfecting the representatives of the selected information, offering the density distribution of wind energy in the main utilized provinces and accumulated data drawing for various grade speed. At the same time, some major cities and provinces also made their own investigation on wind resources, mapped out their distribution drawing. All of these results enrich the understanding on the wind resources in China, offering reliable foundation for further develop and utilize the wind energy.
b) Performance Test on Wind Machine
The main methods to test the performance of wind machine in China are wind tunnel test and wind field test. The China Air Motive Power Research and Development Center has a large-scale low velocity wind tunnel, with which full scale performance test on small-sized wind machine with the maximum vane diameter of 7m and flywheel model performance test on large-scale wind power generation sets can be conducted.
The wind field test is mainly made in Badaling station in Beijing. Furthermore, in Inner Mongolia, certain scale of test stations has been set up. More than 10 parameters including the operation status on wind power generator, wind speed, wind direction, rotating speed, output voltage and power can be surveyed, and utilization efficient and power characteristic curve can be obtained. Moreover, non-conventional performance test on noise, vibration also can be conducted.
c) Standard Specification on Wind Machine
Since the national wind machine standardization technology committee has been founded in 1985, organized by Hohehot Pasturage Mechanism Institute, the national standard on wind machine was worked out. Right now, the relative standards on small-sized wind generation sets were completed. The relative standards on large-scale wind power generation sets and wind field are under the schedule. All of these standards played a crucial role to guarantee the quality of wind machine.
d) Design Technologies on Wind Machine
The design on wind machine is an integrated technology, relating to aerodynamics, structural dynamics, meteorology, M&E engineer, auto control, and computer. Regarding the design technology for wind energy, China has conducted the following research: the aerodynamic design and calculation method on wind machine, the structural dynamic calculation and analysis method on wind machine, the design method on glass fiber reinforced plastic vane for wind machine, constant-variable and frequency-constant generator technology for wind machine, auto control technology for wind machine, speed adjustment (limitation) characteristic for wind machine, direction adjustment characteristic for wind machine, and computer design aid and software package development for wind machine. Increasing progress has been made.
e) Manufacturing Technologies for Wind Machine
Accompanying with the accelerating of the nationalization of medium and large-scale wind power generation sets, the manufacturing technology in China has achieved great advance. Right now, China has mastered the manufacturing technologies on derrick, generator and gearbox. Progress also made in the manufacturing technologies on vane and control system. Sound operation results have been achieved on the vane for 200 to 300 kW wind power generation sets manufactured by Shanghai glass fiber reinforced plastic research institute and Baoding 550 factory, and on the control system for 200kW and 300 kW sets made by electric engineering institute, Chinese Academy of sciences, Nanjing Automation Institute and Zhejiang M&E Institute respectively.
f) Operation Technologies for Wind Machine
Along with the development of construction on wind field, China also conducted on research on the grid-connected operation technology for large-scale wind power generation sets, focusing on the operation impact after it is to be connected to the grid. On the regulations on the grid-connected operation management on wind power generation field, it was defined that the grid capacity in the current stage should be firmly controlled below 5%.
g) Innovative Wind Energy Conversion Plant
The innovative wind energy conversion plant was proposed from the perspective of how to increase the energy of collected wind. From the 1980s, feasibility researches, concept design and demonstration experiment have been conducted one after another including whirlwind type wind energy conversion plant, wind and solar energy integrated power generation plant, and pressure-expanding and incidence type wind energy conversion plant. Comparing with conventional wind energy conversion system, the innovative wind energy conversion plant is with heavy investment and complex technologies. Therefore, it still remains on the stage of scientific exploitation as a whole.